These fears declined by , but a series of midcentury border crises led to the renovation of existing forts and harbor defenses. Still, investments in defense were modest, accounting for only a small percentage of the gross domestic product GDP. The notion of large peacetime security budgets was anathema to most Americans. This tradition was abandoned only in wartime or other moments of national crisis.
By trepidation over threats to the northern border and eastern coastline had mostly disappeared, with the exception of a short-lived flap during the Spanish-American War that stirred unfounded fears of a Spanish armada threatening the coast. Throughout most of the nation's history, threats from within the borders of the United States were less central to American concepts of homeland security. Internal threats have been transient and often regional in focus.
The federal government's role in providing defense against domestic threats has always been suspect. During the nineteenth century, drawing on long-standing antiarmy ideology and the colonial experience, Americans generally opposed using federal forces for internal security. The authors of the U. Constitution held that, other than providing for "the common defense" against external enemies, the only appropriate use of force by federal authorities was the restoration of order in the event of riot or rebellion.
This principle was tested in when President George Washington mobilized the militia in response to threats against excise tax collectors in western Pennsylvania. The success in suppressing the "Whiskey Rebellion" there had as much to do with the president's correctly gauging public opinion, undertaking skillful negotiations, and avoiding bloodshed as it did with putting the militia under arms. Thus, two precedents were set. First, the federal government had both the right and the responsibility to act in order to restore order.
Second, the federal government's authority should be exercised with restraint and prudence. There was no expectation that the federal government would intervene on domestic security issues on a routine basis. Intervention was considered acceptable only in cases of insurrection, widespread public disorder, or extreme domestic violence.
Before the Civil War, state consent or requests for assistance by state authorities always accompanied the domestic use of federal force. Furthermore, the federal government did not play a large role in civil preparedness or responding to disasters. The earliest case of congressionally approved domestic assistance followed a devastating fire in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in To ease the burden, Congress granted an extra year to pay off bonds owed at the local customhouse.
Such measures were an exception rather than the rule. The Civil War placed enormous strains on the proposition that the federal government could ensure domestic security without abrogating the constitutional rights of its citizens.
An Imminent Alert is issued when the threat is very specific and impending in the very near term. On March 12, , the Homeland Security Advisory System , a color-coded terrorism risk advisory scale, was created as the result of a Presidential Directive to provide a "comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to Federal, State, and local authorities and to the American people".
Many procedures at government facilities are tied into the alert level; for example a facility may search all entering vehicles when the alert is above a certain level. Since January , it has been administered in coordination with DHS; it has also been the target of frequent jokes and ridicule on the part of the administration's detractors about its ineffectiveness. After resigning, Tom Ridge stated that he did not always agree with the threat level adjustments pushed by other government agencies. The Homeland Security Council, similar in nature to the National Security Council, retains a policy coordination and advisory role and is led by the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security.
As of January 13, , the DHS advised the American public of an 'elevated national threat' level, recommending that all Americans 'should establish an emergency preparedness kit and emergency plan for themselves and their family, and stay informed about what to do during an emergency'. A DHS press release dated June 6,  explains the seal as follows:.
The seal is symbolic of the Department's mission — to prevent attacks and protect Americans — on the land, in the sea and in the air.
Homeland Security by James J. Carafano and Mark Sauter (2012, Hardcover, Revised)
In the center of the seal, a graphically styled white American eagle appears in a circular blue field. The eagle's outstretched wings break through an inner red ring into an outer white ring that contains the words "U. The eagle's wings break through the inner circle into the outer ring to suggest that the Department of Homeland Security will break through traditional bureaucracy and perform government functions differently.
In the tradition of the Great Seal of the United States, the eagle's talon on the left holds an olive branch with 13 leaves and 13 seeds while the eagle's talon on the right grasps 13 arrows. Centered on the eagle's breast is a shield divided into three sections containing elements that represent the American homeland — air, land, and sea. The top element, a dark blue sky, contains 22 stars representing the original 22 entities that have come together to form the department.
The left shield element contains white mountains behind a green plain underneath a light blue sky. The right shield element contains four wave shapes representing the oceans alternating light and dark blue separated by white lines. The seal was developed with input from senior DHS leadership, employees, and the U. Commission on Fine Arts. Since its inception, the department has had its temporary headquarters in Washington, D. The earliest DHS would begin moving to St. Elizabeths is The move is being championed by District of Columbia officials because of the positive economic impact it will have on historically depressed Anacostia.
The move has been criticized by historic preservationists , who claim the revitalization plans will destroy dozens of historic buildings on the campus. Elizabeths Hospital. During a Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee hearing on the reauthorization of DHS, Elaine Duke , deputy secretary of DHS, said there is a weariness and anxiety within DHS about the repeated congressional efforts to agree to a long-term spending plan, which has resulted in several threats to shutdown the federal government.
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She said the "repeated failure on a longtime spending plan resulting in short-term continuing resolutions CRs has caused "angst" among the department's , employees in the weeks leading up to the CRs. Seventy percent of DHS employees are considered essential and are not furloughed during government shutdowns. Soon after the formation of Department of Homeland Security, the department worked with the Ad Council to launch the Ready Campaign, a national public service advertising PSA campaign to educate and empower Americans to prepare for and respond to emergencies including natural and man-made disasters.
With pro bono creative support from the Martin Agency of Richmond, Virginia , the campaign website "Ready. The Ready Campaign and its Spanish language version Listo. The general campaign aims to reach all Americans, but targeted resources are also available via "Ready Business" for small- to medium-sized business and "Ready Kids" for parents and teachers of children ages 8— In , the campaign also launched a series of PSAs to help the whole community,  people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs prepare for emergencies, which included open captioning, a certified deaf interpreter and audio descriptions for viewers who are blind or have low vision.
The stated purpose was to provide a consistent incident management approach for federal, state, local, and tribal governments. Under Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, all federal departments were required to adopt the NIMS and to use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation program and activities.
In December , the National Response Plan NRP was created, in an attempt to align federal coordination structures, capabilities, and resources into a unified, all-discipline, and all-hazards approach to domestic incident management. The center brings together government organizations responsible for protecting computer networks and networked infrastructure. In January , DHS officially designated state-run election systems as critical infrastructure. The designation made it easier for state and local election officials to get cybersecurity help from the federal government. Attempts to access the reports for FY and FY within the 'information for citizens' portal met with a error.
The AFR gives a comprehensive view of the Department's financial activities and demonstrates the Department's stewardship of taxpayer dollars.
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The scope of our mission is broad, challenging, and vital to the security of the Nation Thank you for your partnership and collaboration. Yours very truly, Janet Napolitano. The Department of Homeland Security has received substantial criticism over excessive bureaucracy, waste, fraud, ineffectiveness and lack of transparency. Its information sharing centers have been accused of violating American civil liberties and targeting American citizens as potential threats to national security. The Department of Homeland Security has been dogged by persistent criticism over excessive bureaucracy , waste, ineffectiveness and lack of transparency.
A inspection of IT infrastructure found that the department was running over a hundred computer systems whose owners were unknown, including Secret and Top Secret databases, many with out of date security or weak passwords. Basic security reviews were absent, and the department had apparently made deliberate attempts to delay publication of information about the flaws. The Associated Press reported on September 5, , that DHS had scrapped an anti-terrorism data mining tool called ADVISE Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight and Semantic Enhancement after the agency's internal Inspector General found that pilot testing of the system had been performed using data on real people without required privacy safeguards in place.
Controversy over the program is not new; in March , the Government Accountability Office stated that "the ADVISE tool could misidentify or erroneously associate an individual with undesirable activity such as fraud , crime or terrorism.
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Fusion centers are terrorism prevention and response centers, many of which were created under a joint project between the Department of Homeland Security and the US Department of Justice 's Office of Justice Programs between and The fusion centers gather information not only from government sources, but also from their partners in the private sector. There are a number of documented criticisms of fusion centers, including relative ineffectiveness at counterterrorism activities, the potential to be used for secondary purposes unrelated to counterterrorism, and their links to violations of civil liberties of American citizens and others.
smeltd.co.uk/17050.php David Rittgers of the Cato Institute has noted:. The North Texas Fusion System labeled Muslim lobbyists as a potential threat; a DHS analyst in Wisconsin thought both pro- and anti-abortion activists were worrisome; a Pennsylvania homeland security contractor watched environmental activists, Tea Party groups, and a Second Amendment rally; the Maryland State Police put anti-death penalty and anti-war activists in a federal terrorism database; a fusion center in Missouri thought that all third-party voters and Ron Paul supporters were a threat The Missouri Information Analysis Center MIAC made news in for targeting supporters of third party candidates such as Ron Paul , pro-life activists, and conspiracy theorists as potential militia members.
According to the Department of Homeland Security : . The Privacy Office has identified a number of risks to privacy presented by the fusion center program:. In , the Virginia Fusion Center came under criticism for publishing a terrorism threat assessment which stated that certain universities are potential hubs for terror related activity. In , MSNBC reported that Grant Goodman, "an year-old retired University of Kansas history professor, received a letter from his friend in the Philippines that had been opened and resealed with a strip of dark green tape bearing the words "by Border Protection " and carrying the official Homeland Security seal.
Customs and Border Protection "acknowledged that the agency can, will and does open mail coming to U. All mail originating outside the United States Customs territory that is to be delivered inside the U. That includes personal correspondence. The department declined to outline what criteria are used to determine when a piece of personal correspondence should be opened or to say how often or in what volume Customs might be opening mail.
Goodman's story provoked outrage in the blogosphere ,  as well as in the more established media. Reacting to the incident, Mother Jones remarked that "[u]nlike other prying government agencies, Homeland Security wants you to know it is watching you. In July , the Office of Personnel Management conducted a survey of federal employees in all 36 federal agencies on job satisfaction and how they felt their respective agency was headed. DHS was last or near to last in every category including;. The low scores were attributed to major concerns about basic supervision, management and leadership within the agency.
Examples from the survey reveal most concerns are about promotion and pay increase based on merit, dealing with poor performance, rewarding creativity and innovation, leadership generating high levels of motivation in the workforce, recognition for doing a good job, lack of satisfaction with various component policies and procedures and lack of information about what is going on with the organization.
It was last of large federal agencies in with In the Center for Effective Government analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act FOIA requests, published in using and data , the Department of Homeland Security earned a D by scoring 69 out of a possible points, i.