Ibises are also featured as an ibis-headed human on stone reliefs at the Temple of Luxor and the Temple of Horus at Edfu, the Philae Temple of Isis  and on wall paintings at Beni Hasa and Thebes . In , archaeologists unearthed two large four metre granite statues of the god Thoth as an ibis-headed human from the New Kingdom Period in the city of Luxor at the temple of Amenhotep III . Ashmunei has revealed a faience ibis which was put in a group of inlays decorating a wooden shrine.
The multicoloured glaze of these inlays are produced by inlaying pastes of colours into hollows cut into the base before firing and polishing the surface. The Thoth Rebus is a post New Kingdom amulet made of carnelian. It depicts a striding ibis crowned with a moon. The hieroglyph of Thoth is inscribed where it holds the feather of Maat in its beak.
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An ibis coffin made of gessoed wood, silver, gold leaf, rock crystal and pigment from the Ptolomaic period is a manifestation of Thoth and depicted with its silver legs bent as if brooding . The coffin was found at Hermopolis which was the chief sanctuary of Thoth where the Temple was used for ceremonies and festivals . The coffin itself retains the remains of an ibis within a cavity made from a covered hole in its back. It is also covered in such details as a necklace incised at the base of the neck, carefully rendered scaly skin and creases on the legs, with rock crystals outlined in gold inserted for the eyes .
Animals played a significant role in ancient Egyptian religion.
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In hieroglyphic script animals signify a quarter of the hieroglyphs. Humans did not play the central role in life as they did in other near East and Mediterranean religions. Hornung contends that humans were not considered the lord of the animals but more like partners . Animals were seen as living beings like humans and gods. In Egyptian ethics it was necessary to morally consider animals in much the same way as humans. As humans and other animals were considered living beings, gods could be represented in human and animal form as well as hybrid form .
Thoth was seen as the moon-god and the healer of the sacred eye of Horus-Re between whom there was a close connection . Thoth prepares the way for Re to travel. Thoth is also known as the god of wisdom who is capable of reconciling demoniacal and unpredictable gods such as Seth and Tefnet with more rational and ordered mortals . In the Pyramid Texts it is Thoth that the other gods turn to for assistance. Thoth is the dreaded avenger of injustice pyr. Thoth is the word of the creator in the Shabaka Text and through this is the guardian of the regulations of creation .
The Sacred Ibis held a significant role in ancient Egypt in its representation of Thoth, god of writing, scribes, wisdom, time, justice and deputy of the sun-god Horus-Re. It was bred, nurtured, and mummified with the same attention to ritual given to many humans of that time. There is a large amount of archaeological evidence for the birds in Egypt, being the burial grounds at Saqqara, Abydos, Tuna el-Gebel and Hermopolis.
The use of ibises in cultic activities meant that they played a major role in daily life helping to keep water clean and cleaning up refuse.
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Although it is extinct in modern Egypt because of aridification, it is now found throughout the world where it successfully cohabits with humans in places such as parklands and wetlands. Biblioteque Arabe Brill, Leiden, p. I so enjoyed reading your article I would like to include it in an article that I am preparing for a book on birds. I shall select 50 birds and write short stories on each.
These will be printed out for friends and family. May I have your permission please to include your article? Thank you. Sure Andy. I am glad you enjoyed it.
Could you please send me a copy of your article when you have finished as I would be interested in reading it? Reblogged this on janetthomas. Thanks, Agnes. I am glad to hear that Thoth populates other countries on the African continent. It is a very versatile bird. Yes and I saw some about 2 weeks ago in Mulanje, Malawi flying above and forming a V for about 30 minutes where I was and it was awesome…. May I add that another name for the Ibis spirit besides the Greek word Thoth and not the many physical ones I see here in Malawi is Djhuiti or dhwty while here some priestesses call him Mikolo Njinjinji African Sacred Ibis , thanks.
Fantastic information, Agnes. Thank you for adding it. Can you tell me what Djhuiti means in Malawi?
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Djhuiti is not from the Chichewa or Chinyanja language of Malawi which I use to name that spirit known as a god in the West. The unofficial but easily edited Wikipedia with Budge, E. Not at all. I have enjoyed your input immensely. I know there are straw-necked ibises in Australia, where I am from, and they are mostly black. Perhaps they are the ones you saw.
They sound very interesting. Thanks for the information about the straw-necked ibises in Australia so I will Google to see if those are the ones. The ones I saw had reddish or orange beaks and they flow in V formations above me in Mulanje for about 30 minutes. It was quite a sight and the ones in the below link are what I saw so I was confused and wondered if they migrate to Africa in January so I will ask bird experts.
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